Glossary of mining & processing terms used at Parys
– Horizontal tunnel driven for access or drainage.
ADVENTURERS – Individuals who funded mines an a cost book system hoping to make a quick profit.
AIR DOOR – Door fixed across a level to direct flow of air for ventilation.
ARCHING – Roof supports in a level built of stone, wood, concrete or iron.
ARGIA – The walls between the precipitation pits.
BACKFILL – Waste rock packed into a disused passage or stope.
BAL MAIDENS – (Cornish) woman working to break up ore prior to processing.
BALANCE BOB – A mechanism to allow pump rods to transmit motion underground.
BALANCED INCLINE – Two parallel tracks where weight of full wagon descending pulled up empty wagon.
BATTERY WORKS – A place where copper or brass was hammered into articles.
BELL PIT – A shallow working dug from the surface usually following a vein of ore.
BLISTER COPPER-metallic copper recovered by smelting but before refining.
BLONDIN – Wire rope spanning a quarry on which a travelling pulley could lift and move loads.
BRATTICE – Wooden frames down the centre of a tunnel covered with thick canvass for ventilation
BRIMSTONE – Flowers of sulphur a solid powdery form of sulphur.
BUDDLE – Trough or circular pit where ore was separated from waste.
CABAN – Recess cut into the rock underground for shelter.
CAPTAIN – An over ser or mine manager. Captain Treweek hd a number of assitant captains Mynydd Parys
CHAIN INCLINE – Device running on chain or wire rope instead of rails.
CHWIMSI – Welsh for whimsey. A horse power haulage device.
COPPER LADIE – woman working on parys mountain to break up ore prior to processing.
COST BOOK SYSTEM-Every quarter profits are paid out leaving nothing in reserve for hard time.
CROSS CUT – Access tunnel driven to cut the lode.
CRUSHER – Machine with two revolving drums to crush ore.
CRYSTYN COCH – Red ochre while still in precipitation pits.
DEADS – Waste rock stacked in the roof or walls.
DRESSING – The process of separating ore from waste material or producing slates.
DRUMHOUSE – Structure supporting the drum of a balanced incline.
ENGINE SHAFT – Shaft fitted with pumping equipment.
FATHOM – Unit of measurement 6 ft.
FFLODIARD – Floodgate or sluice on precipitation pit.
FIRESETTING – Method of breaking up rock by heating with fire and then quenching it with water.
FLAT RODS – Iron or wooden rods transmitting motion from an engine to pumps.
FLOOR – Working level of a slate quarry.
GANGUE – Crystalline minerals found in a lode with ore.
GINGING – Stone lining to a shaft.
GILLWNG – to drop a kibble
HALVANERS – people who dug over waste to recover copper. £338 paid in wages for 1842.
HAMMER STONES – Large pebbles used to crush ore by bronze age people
HOPPER – Wooden storage bin holding rock thrown down from a stope.
INCLINE – Inclined underground level or surface track for access or haulage.
JUMPER – Long iron rod, pointed at each end, which was used to drill shot holes by hitting it against the rock face.
KIBBLE – Iron or wooden bucket for raising ore or water.
LAUNDER – Wooden trough for conveying water.
LEAT – Surface channel for conveying water.
LEVEL – Horizontal tunnel driven for access or drainage.
LODE – Fissure containing a deposit of ore.
LON GOPAR – The road from Mona mine to the port which was lined with waste ore.
MAGAZINE – Building in which explosives are stored.
MAUL STONES – Large pebbles used to crush ore by bronze age people
MILL – Surface building where ore was processed.
MINE CAPTAIN – The Manager who looked after the day to day running of the mine.
MOCHYN – The iron weighted balancing trolley of a mass balanced incline.
MWN – Ore or mine
OCHRE – A copper / iron oxide used in the preparation of paints
OLD MAN – The old miners or their workings.
ORE – Material from which metal could be extracted by smelting.
PACK WALL – Waste rock stacked as a wall along side of level.
PELTON WHEEL – Small waterwheel with cups into which a jet of water was directed.
PILLAR – Area of rock left undisturbed to support the roof.
POWDER HOUSE – Explosive store.
PRECIPITATION PIT– Pit where iron is added to copper solution causing copper to precipitate.
PWLL HAERN – Precipitation pits.
QUARRY – Place where stone or slate was excavated
REGULUSs-metalic portion of material in smelter.Normally more than one metal
REVERBATORY FURNACE -flame does not come in direct contact with the ore.
RISE – Underground shaft driven upwards.
SCORIER BLOCK– A slag block often used for building.
SETT – Area of a mining lease
SHAFT – Vertical or slightly inclined entrance for access, haulage or pumping.
SHEAVE – Grooved pulley wheel.
SHOTHOLE – Small diameter hole drilled into rock for inserting gunpowder.
SLIDEWAY – Unrailed incline.
SPOIL – Area of waste rock.
STEM – A mIners shift traditionally 6 hours at the wrokplace.
STEMPLE – Wooden bar jammed between rock walls for climbing or supporting deads.
STOPE – Cavity created by removal or ore.
SUMP – Underground shaft driven downwards.
TRAMMER – Those who operated the trams at the mines. Generally teenagers.
TRIBUTERS – Those workers who brought out the ore in return for a share of the profits.
TUT WORKERS – Set of men to drive tunnels or shafts paid per fathom of tunnel dug to develop the mine
TYNTRI – Handwind lass ( From English turntree)
VEIN – Fissure containing a deposit of ore.
VENTILATION DOOR – Door fixed across a level to direct flow of air for ventilation.
WHIM or WHIMSEY – Winding engine powered by horse, steam or water.
WINCH – Portable device for raising loads, either hand, steam or air powered.
WINZE – Underground shaft driven downwards.