Time line of events at Parys Mountain
2040-1690 BC Bronze age working for copper. Hammer stones being used Rediscovered underground in 1990s. Radiocarbon dated.
0-100 AD Probable Roman working from evidence of copper ingots found in locality.
1352 Trwysglwyn Fawr mentioned in “Stent” of 1352 Domicile of Tudor ap Ednyfed at an annual rent of 6/8
1406 Robert Parys given MP as a reward from the King for collecting taxes due from the 2112 gentry of Anglesey because of their support for Owain Glyndwr. He lived at Madyn Dysw
1564 Map showing copper works at “Hen Waith” Ore exported to copper smelters at Neath.
1568 Mines Royal Company formed monopoly on mining.
1579 “Medleys Great Mineral Works at Mynydd Parys”investigations for the Mineral & Battery work on methods for producing materials from the waters of MP Recorded by Sir John Wynn of Gwydir Iron transmuted to copper.
1610 John Speed the famous cartographer records “Alum and Coperas were being made at parys mountain but the enterprise has been abandoned without further hope because at first they saw it will not answer there over haste prediction”
1662 A visitor noted that the mountain yielded “a sort of earth of which they make Copperas and alum” (Fuller :-Worthies )
1689 Crown Monopoly on mining for Copper relaxed.
1690 Gunpowder began to be used in mines 1698 Reference to “The Princes mine at Trwysglwyn” by Henry Rowlands
1655-1723 From a letter by Bishop Humphries of Bangor dated 6/4/1698
1698 Savery invented “Fire pump” to remove water from mines.
1704 Coal burning reverbatory furnaces developed. Use 3 coal to 1 non-ferrous ore.
1705 Newcomen’s atmospheric steam engine invented. 10 gallons up 153 ft /stroke
1706 A visitor noted that the mountain yielded “a sort of earth of which they make Copperas and alum” (Rev J Brome Travels over England, Scotland and Wales. It is likely that this was copied from Fuller’s similar remarks in 1662)
1712 Newcomen erects first pump engine at a coalmine in Dudley.
1714 First steam engine used in Wales to pump water. At Hawarden. Flintshire 31/5/1737 Thomas Williams born at Llansadwrn. Become mines manager and great industrialist.
1737 Lewis Morris in his coastal survey of Anglesey records “Amlwch is no more than hamlet of 6 houses with an insignificant harbour that is not worth mapping”
1748 Lewis Morris maps of Anglesey. He noted that earth from the mine was used to make paint. No mention of copper Amlwch described as “A cove between two steep rocks”
1750 Cheadle Brass company set up works in Holywell.
1753 Sir Nicholas Bayly (Plas Newydd) obtains 15 year lease (@£25 pa) to work Parys farm from William Lewis of Llys Dulas. Copper had not been rediscovered on the land at this time.
1756 Dr Linden in a treatise on mineral waters, mentions a mineral spring at “Trwysglwyn turning syrup of violets red, being no chalybeate whatever.”
23/6/1760 Sir Nicholas Bayly was made Lord Lieutenant of Anglesey.
1760 Dr Rutty for the Royal Society investigated the curative properties of MP waters. ” A powerful detergent. For dysentry,gleats,flour albus and diarahha”
1760 Practice of sheathing wooden ships with copper started. To prevent Teredo worm attack. John Cartwright comes to Mona to view the “old Workings” which had been discovered.
Oct 1761 Nicholas Bayly receives £108/15/9 rent from Cartwright to carry on Parys Mountain Copper mine. (MMS 2242)
1761 Cornish miners active in Anglesey. A James Thomas had Amlwch ore sent to a smelter in Warrington. (Morris letters) John Owen reported to William Morris that a horse of the Steward of the Archdeacon of Merionydd also stumbled into some ancient workings on the mountain. There was said to be a deep gully made by horse hooves, ore like that John Owen and Alexander Frazier were working at Rhosmynach and lumps of copper melted during the period of ancient workings. Frazier persuades Bayly to look for copper at MP. Some found in area of Cerrig y Bleddia but drainage problems.
1761 William Lewis of Llys Dulas dies. Estate passes to Wife. First use of Copper sheathing on ships.
13/9/1762 Bayley’s mineral agent Cartwright was paid £225/9/11 for 2 years 11 months’ work in “reopening the old works at Parys mountain” This suggests Bayley had been active at Mona since October 1759.
1763 Bayley mineral agent, William Elliot met Mr Roe at Bangor to discuss lease of Parys mountain.
12/10/1764 Bayly agrees to lease CyB ( Mona mine) to Charles Roe & Co from Derbyshire an a 21 year lease. Ore carried in bags to Amlwch at 3d/bag. Bayly to receive 1/8th of the ore raised. Mining started April 1765. With 6 men and a manager.
1764 Plan by Reynolds drawn in 1764 shows “Ancient Roman workings” Also shows a turbary as occupying the site of the later Dyffryn Coch precipitation system, overlooked by a “mineral well and old washing place near the present Mona yard. this may have been the source for Medleys experiments in 1579. (Harwarden record office D/KK/534 Plan of Parys Mountain, 1764).
1765 By Marriage Parys Farm passes to Edward Hughes.
1766 Amlwch said to consist of only 6 house. 1/1/1768 Roe and Co copper smelter at Liverpool opened.
15/2/1768 Bayly’s agent (William Elliot) sent to Macclesfield to demand 50% share of profit from CYB. (MMS3534)
2/3/1768 Large quantity of good quality ore found near to Golden Venture shaft by Jonathan Roose. Miner Roland Puw credited with discovery and given cottage for life and a bottle of brandy each year from the plas newydd estate until his death in 1786. (MMS 3534) A few days later Cartwright was again dispatched to try and gave 1/8 share of the company. This was offered to NB who then demanded 1/4 share. This he did not gain and remained on 1/8 duty ores. 1769 Watt’s improved steam engine invented but unable to produce due to poor manufacturing techniques. 1770 Bayly has some ore storehouses built at AP. The work at Mona mine crossed the line into Parys farm.
March 1770 Hughes still operating on his ½ of Parys farm land but reluctant to finance mine development on his land. Payments made to carpenters and stone masons for building buddles and buddle dams to separate ore from waste. (MMS 3750) This practice was revived in 1872. (MJ 17/2/1872)
29/8/1772 First recorded delivery of “scrap Iron” to Mona mine. The precipitation process must hence have been in use at least by this time (MMS 2242) Wheelbarrows of ore to port 3d, or 3/- a ton for larger loads.
1772 Records show 972 tons of ore sent to smelters. at Warrington by Bayly. ( 27 vessels of around 35 tons each.) Iron was also imported suggesting precipitation pits. Water raised by buckets and whimsy’s.
1772 Hughes takes Bayly to court for “wasteful” mining practices. Bayly stops mining for two years. Thomas Williams is Hughes’s lawyer and eventually becomes a partner with Hughes.
Aug 1774 Bayley accuses Edward Hughes of breaking into store houses stealing tool and setting to work on his land. (MMS 3544)
Dec 1774 Injunction against Bayly lifted. Restarts mining at Parys farm. Hughes also starts to work Parys farm with Thomas Williams for his own account.
Aug 1775 Hughes obtains court order to limit Bayly to 50 miners 2 agents and one assay master also restrained from opening more pits or carting away more than 1/2 of the ore. Hughes and NB agree to William Elliot, Richard Bennett and another miner to be employed as joint agents. Hugh Price to be receiver of profits and then to distribute. (MMS 3544)
19 Dec 1775 Hughes applies to put Bayly into the fleet prison for breach of agreement. Henry staples appointed by Master of the Rolls as third Agent.
1775 First successful Boulton and Watt steam engine produced at a mine.
1775 History of the Island of Anglesey Published by John Thomas. ” Amlwch … is a small cove formed at it were by an excavation of a large rock… 40 perches long and from side to side, which are uncommonly steep no more than 5 pearchs.”
1776 Williams starts to petition parliament for a reduction in duties on coal carried by sea. On the basis that coal was needed for steam raising to pump the mine and for a smelter operation. Two miners killed underground.
1776 John Southern draws up a boundary map between MM & PM (UCNW 405) The first Boulton & Watt prototype steam engine built.
12/11/1778 Bayly leases his mining rights to John Dawes a London banker for 21 years for 1/3 of the ore raised. (MMS1267) Later changed to fixed rent of £4000 pa. John Dawes immediately joins Hughes/Williams partnership to form the old PMC.
1778 Jonathon Roose as mining engineer.
1778 Roe’s copper being calcined free of charge in a vertical kiln batch process at AP by Champion in return for the sulphur produced. Champion proposes to build new calciners on the mountain to extract sulphur. This company later also treated Hughes ore.
1778 Thomas Pennant visited the mines and works at Greenfield. Estimates 8000 persons depend on the mine. “The ore is not got out in the common manner of mining but is cut out of the bed in the same manner as stone is cut from a quarry”
1779 TW leases land in Ravenshead to build smelter. Also signed coal contract. Manager Michael Hughes.
1780 HMR Royal George lay at anchor in Portsmouth harbour. Suddenly the ship’s hull parted in the area of the water line. Over 900 people on board were lost. The inquiry decided that the iron nails which held the copper sheathing in place had become rusty and rotted the timbers. This discovery lead to Thomas williams producing Hardened copper nails of greefield.
1780 Copper forge, wire mill and rolling mill built at Holywell for PMC. Also purchased Upper bank smelter in Swansea. Legal action by Pritchard a local landowner against TW building a new road direct to AP. 1780 Richard Owen map shows a few buildings being developed around the end of the port.
1780 Engraving of Mona Mine shows an open quarry with 7 working levels each large enough for a horse and cart. (Mining Journal 12/6/1880 p670)
1781 A light was first positioned at Point Lynas. Often hidden by furnace smoke.
9/12/1782 Nicholas Bayly dies leaving His Son Sir Herny Bayly (Paget) who later became Earl of Uxbridge as owner.
1782 Roe and Co had 400 workers at CyB with profit of £15,000pa. Hence 1/8=£3000pa went to NB successor Earl of Uxbridge. Knowing that lease would soon expire Roe and co only working easy ores. PMC had 800 workers and built small pier and limestone kiln at Amlwch Port. It was reported that the CYB mine had dug a number of deep shafts. PM however continued using opencast.
1783 Thomas Harrison of Plas newydd reports ” all vegetation is utterly destroyed… were the smoke reaches”
1784 Pennant “Tours in Wales” Details of early operations at the mine. 1500 employed at the mine. Open cast technique with a hole 100 yds length, 40 yds wide and 24 yards deep.
1784 Walter Davies says that prior to 1784 all calcining was carried out on mountain. Plan of Mona mine drawn. (MMS 31603)
11/10/1785 Roe & Co lease expires. Henry Paget Earl of Uxbridge forms Old Mona mine company to work CyB. Roe given £2013/6/- for equipment including engines, coal and iron. TW becomes principal partner. (MMS 2485)
Between 9/12/1782 and 10/10/1785 Earl of Uxbridge received duty ores (1/8) worth £15261
1785 TW develops facilities on the mountain and at Amlwch port. Warehouse & Stores £1458 Horizontal kilns,condensers,flues for sulphur extraction £2022. Windmill engine, Whimsey engine, staging, pumps, tools etc £2230. Pier and Quay at Amlwch £1025. Road and storage at Amlwch £575. Total outlay £ 61,000 MM profits.1787=£5337 , 88=£6537 89=£7385 , 90=8729 , 91= £11674 , 92= £14409 , 1793=£16905. Total £70976 Parys mine said to be about twice the size of Mona at this time. Stanley works,St Helens, middle bank and Penclawdd ,Swansea set up to smelt for MMC.
1785 Cornish Metal Company set up by Thomas Williams, Mathew Boulton, James Watt and John Vivian. All Cornish copper to be sold to TW for 7 years. TW gains control of UK copper market. New patented forged bolt for copper sheathing developed at Holywell. Pascoe was William’s agent for Navel copper sales on the continent. 1785 “ The Parys Copper Mine of Anglesey”Painted by Ibbetson. Shows a number of two men windlass being used to lower men in buckets to an opencast site from protruding platforms. Also a possible Horse whimsey in distance. Similar structures shown in painting by John Warwick Smith in same year, but scale of opencast is much deeper. Mathew Boulton reports that PMC has agents throughout Europe selling copper.
5/7/1786 TW gains an act of Parliament to refund duty on coastwise coal used for “Smelting copper and lead ores and in fire engines for drawing water out of the copper and lead mines within the Isle of Anglesey” Pay back not to exceed £1500 pa. Already 31 furnaces at Amlwch and 35 ships used to send out copper/ore. 1786 Map of MM shows series off falls in Great Open cast area. Hillside has 144 shafts, some already capped. Each about 6-foot square and around 30 feet deep. Mona Mine yard also shown at ” New Yard” (UWB 31603) PMC owner of 36 ships and had spent £7000 on developments at Amlwch port.
1786 Roland Puw who was credited with the discovery of Copper at MP dies. His rent free cottage passes to his wife who died in 1791
1787 Parys mountain penny first minted. To pay workers at the mine. Generally agreed to be the Zenith of copper production at MP. 4000tpa. One bargain produced 2931 tons of ore and only 92 tons of waste.(Hugh Hughes)
1787 Boulton visits MP and describes a vertical continuous sulphur recovery process.
1788 Amlwch Shipping company formed to carry to and from the mine. John Price MM agent, Stephan Roose,PMagent, Michael Hughes as managers. Thomas Williams petitioning parliament against abolition of slave trade which would cost him his investment in factories in Holywell , Temple mill and Penclawdd”Turn trees,rolls and stages worth £17 13/- recorded at Mona Mine (MMS 3040)
1788 Lovely Nancy first ship to be built in AP. Mona Mine built road from mines to Amlwch Port. (MMS 3040)
1790 Large rock fall at PM, which took 9 months to clear. (MMS3545) 1200 recorded as working at mine. Reference to a steam winding engine at Parys mine destroyed by the copper water. Painting by Warwick Smith still shows use of windlass and also small windmill. Williams Copper office at London became ” Williams & Grenfell”
10/3/1792 Rock fall at MM making it unsafe to go underground for a few weeks. Reported by John Price mine agent, one man injured. 1792 Cornish Metal Company comes to end of legal lease and is would up. TW losses control of UK copper market. Painting by Warwick Smith shows the Mona mine buildings and possible buddles for washing ore.
1792 TW sets up Garstang Vitriol works to use sulphur from the mine. Anglesite a lead sulphate mineral discovery at PM,
1793 Act of Parliament to widen the Port. Eastern side developed. Also act for total remission of coast wise coal to MP. Aikin notes a vitriol works at Trwsglwyn. Which Parr later takes over in 1803.
Jun 1794 General Sir Walter Tremenheere travels to Amlwch as an army recruitment officer. He was told by the Tide surveyor that Amlwch had grown from 4 or 5 houses to over 100 since the mines had opened. He was informed by a Cornish Tinner that a company of Quakers had “determined to spend a few thousand to discover the continuation of the mass of copper” They had been trying for two years without success. The mountain is bare of vegetation due to the smoke from the sulphur kilns. The workings were 100 yds long by 30 to 50 deep and wide.
1794 Painting by J Bluik still shows windlass but also at least one horse whim. Partnership between Owen Williams and Pascoe Grenfell brought Cornish ores to made 250 te of pure copper each year until 1799
1796 Prehistoric workings at MP first postulated when Christopher Sykes referred to “cobbles stones and fire set drift workings” which had already been quarried away by the open cast workings, but were still a recent memory. Aikin visits and writes ” the ore continues as plentiful as ever and the quality rather superior to that which lay near the surface”
Mar 1797 Loyal Parys Mountain Volunteers formed to fight in Napoleonic war 1797 Aikin visited and described 2 smelters built at AP One for each company. Each with 31 furnaces. 90 people working at the smelters Alum & Vitriol works at Trwysglwyn and a rolling mill. Gunpowder in use at mines. Conical sulphur kilns at port. Sulphur cones sent to London and Liverpool for gunpowder and sulphuric acid manufacture. Green Vitriol and Alum made by a separate company. 1200 miners earning 1/- to 1/8 per day. He estimates Parys mine was producing between 5000 and 10000 tons of ore per quarter.
1798 Bingley’s description of workings at MP. Mining above and below ground with vast caverns and pillars remaining. Around 1000 working at mine.
12/11/1799 Original lease for PM comes to an end. New company formed with annual lease. 1/2 Rev Mr Hughes,1/4 Earl, 1/4 T.Williams. Sanderson becomes Lord Uxbridges agent at the mines.
Between 1768 and 1800 MM paid £193,943/19/0 and PM £111693/15/0 as duties to Earl of Uxbridge. A Boulton and Watt steam engine installed but failed due to the acidic waters.
1799 Parliament investigates the high price of Copper. TW main witness. The case was brought by Boulton on behalf of the Birmingham manufactures to try and stop the East India Company taking Copper out of the country and at the same time take the duty off imported Copper. PMC offers “former sulphur and vitriol works at pen y maes for sale with plenty of local cheap labour” (Chester Chron 8/3/1799)
1800 Lentin describes the mines in detail Both batch and continuous sulphur recovery being used. He counted 45 kiln at MP & AP. Smelting done mainly at Ravenhead. Still 20 furnaces at AP. St Eleath church built with £4000 from PMC. 1800 Mona mine employs 411 underground,624 on surface=1035, Smelters 32 Port 12 Melin adda 13,Madyn farm 33 Total 1125 @ 1/4d per day=£75pd Also 54 teams with 3 horses in each @5/- per team =£13/10/0 Daily labour costs =£88/10/- (MMS 1267)
5/3/1801 “New PMC” formed with 20-year lease.
27/3/1801 1801 Census shows 182 miners and 27 copper ladies. 4877 inhabitants in 1025 houses.
21/5/1801 William Hughes of Parys Lodge writes to Michael Hughes ” Hopeful of a new discovery above Parys Farm. The new discovery was visited by Williams on 15th June. However, by 14/4/1802 discovery said to be disappointing. (MH letters Liverpool)
8/11/1802 Thomas Williams Bequeaths his share of Stanley and Middle bank works to his sons, Owen & John. His sons declare their intention to allow Michael Hughes and Pascoe Grenfell to take shares. (MH letters Liverpool)
29/11/1802 Thomas Williams died interest in PMC/MMC pass to sons
15/12/1802 Burial of Williams. Formation of Williams & Grenfell. (MH letters Liverpool) 1802 “Ten-day tour in Anglesea” Rev John Skinner Described the great opencast. 1803 Parr takes over Mona Vitriol Works at Trwysglwyn Isaf. Copperas, alum, vitriol,ochre
1803 “Williams & Grefell” take over the Parys works Upper bank works at Swansea.
16/10/1804 £9142 worth of Copper ore shipped to Stanley works in previous quarter. (MH letters Liverpool)
18/10/1804 John Price agent dies owing Mona Mine a considerable sum. ( MH letters Liverpool)
24/10/1804 Discrepancies in Assays produced at Amlwch and Stanley. 12 tpa. (MH letters Liverpool)
3/11/1804 £10,616 received from Stanley Co for ore sent from Mona mine in previous quarter. (MH letters Liverpool) 1806 227 men employed underground. Suggesting that some shafts were being dug. 17036 lbs of gunpowder and 26283 lbs of candles used. (Pennant)
1806 Pascoe Grenfell is described at William’s Chief assistance in the London Copper Office. He is said to earn £20,000 pa from his share of the mines.
1807 237 men employed underground. . 15345 lbs of gunpowder and 23321 lbs of candles used. (Pennant)
1808 Very few vessels recorded as entering AP. Only 122 people employed at the mine.6300lbs of gunpowder and9200 lbs of candles. (Pennant)
1809 Walter Davies states miners now earn 8/- per week guaranteed. And says that some excavations at 300feet deep and several yds square. Brimstone made in horizontal kilns into cones,9″ sq cubes and stones for shops. He also has 32 reverbatory furnaces of which 16 are in constant use each using 3 tonnes of fuel per day. Replenished with 12cwt of ore every 5 hours. (16819 tpa & similar to other smelters.) Number now employed is not even 600. precipitation 1ton iron will precipitate 19 1/2 cwt of copper mud which gives 15 1/2 cwt of pure copper.
12/1/1810 Pascoe reports that a new type of navy sheathing nail has been introduced on the Thames. If Ravenshead can reduce price will pick up orders. (MH letters Liverpool)
1810 Pennant describes some underground caverns 50Yd long,30yds wide and 40yd high supported by one central pillar.
11/10/1811 Williams Brothers sold 1/2 of Mona smelter and 1/4 of Parys smelter to Earl of Uxbridge They also sold their interests in Mona and Parys mine to him. He later forms a new company for the Mona ore and his share of the Parys ores with John Vivian of Hafod smelter works in Swansea. Also “New Mona” company formed. Lord Uxbridge 40 shares /RH Vivian 9/ JH Vivian 9/ Capt William Davey 2 shares. The tie up with the Vivians gave better access to capital and mining experience. The Vivians supplied MM with coal until 1813 and gained the lease on the Mona Smelting works and a secure supply of ore. James Treweek appointed by John Vivian to run mine/smelter. Moves to Mona Lodge. PMC smelter operating with 8 furnaces. Treweek erected pumping machinery to extend the workings deeper. Pearl Engine House probably built. several shafts named after local officials Tiddy, Beer, Sanderson. The idea had been for Vivians to try and expand their south Wales smelting operation into Liverpool. However, the MM smelting works was run down from 8 furnaces in 1811 to 4 in 1817 when the lease of the works for the new company were not renewed. 1811 William Hughes gains a monopoly for carting at Mona Mines. Received £2898 in 1826/7 for carting. (MMs 3536)
16/5/1812 Lord uxbridge decides to withdraw from the Ravenhead,Stanley and Greefiled concerns,receive his moieties from Parys mine in kind and dispose of it himself. Edward Hughes also makes same decision. (MH Liverpool) 24/10/1812 Lord Uxbridge signs deal with Vivians of Swansea to take his ore. 1812 MM Smelters AP closed, Harbour widened again to allow two vessels to berth side by side. 1813 Fine ore shipped from MM to Stanley for smelting Oct 1786 to Apr 1802 =11611 tonnes @ standard £92. from Jul 1801 to Apr 1813 3353 Tonnes @ £118. For PM Oct 1801 to April 1813 2193 T @ £118 (MMS1267) 28/11/1814 William Morgan Parys Lodge reports 25te 8 Cwt of ore refined in Two furnaces.Hope to do similar next quarter. Rock falls at the mine are hindering output. (MH letters)
1814 Both smelters at Ravenhead closed Smelting still carried out at AP
9/9/1815 Parys mine promised to produce 300 to 320 te of precipitate and 2400 tons of ore within the year. (MH letters)
1815 Jonathan Roose dies. Plan of Parys mine drawn (MSS 31602) Three hand whimseys recorded alone edge of Great open cast (MJ 1880 p 374)
1816 Melin Porth built at port by Paynters. Vivians decide not to renew the lease on the mine and Marquis of Anglesey goes it alone with Treweek as manager.
1816 Mine output had increase to 6* that when Treweek first arrived in 1811. (383 te 1812 to 7391 te 1816).
1817 Attempt to restart Mona Mine smelters at AP. William Morgan becomes chief smelter at both the M&P Smelting works. 4 smelters working in the MM works. Full production was established the following year after “Copper bottom” from the previous shut down were removed.
1817 Small light house built on port pier to be 28 feet above half tide level. It showed a fixed bright light visible for 4 miles.
21/2/1817 Food riots in Amlwch and troops from Ireland brought in. (Chester Chron 21/2/1817)
16/7/1818 Rock cannon fired to celebrate Lord Uxbridge coming of age 1818 In MM 80 bargains let to 303 men for £1974. At PM £27 over 227 men. Cf 1826
27/3/1819 Pearl engine house commissioned to replace a horse whim at the shaft.
24/4/1819 Strike for higher wages by 17 smelters under William Morgan. Demand was for 2/- per day. A warrant for their arrest was issued and they returned to work a few days later. Thomas Tiddy appointed MM manager by Treweek.
29/6/1819 Faraday visited the mine. Describe the mine operation and the Pearl Engine House. Faraday climbed the ladders back out of the 360 feet deep Pearl Engine Shaft. He also noted that no trams were used in the mine because of the acidic waters. 1820 16 furnaces at MM smelters and 9 at parys mine works in the port.
15/1/1821 Treweek reports ” both at Cerrig Y Bleddia and at Bluestone we are obliged to employ horse power in keeping the working clear of water, that is we have been obliged to draw with the whimsey instead of the …engine. (MMS 11)
26/7/1821 Opening of Coronation shaft to celebrate the coronation of George IV. Number of rock cannon drilled and fired. Two men injured by gunpowder burns.
6/12/1821 Rock cannon fired to celebrate the birth of a son and heir to Colonel Hughes. ” The shipping in Amlwch Port displayed their various colours. The miners at the great Copper mines made a complete holiday of it and continued firing Rock cannon without intermission throughout the day.” (North Wales Gazette 6/12/18231)
1821 Amlwch population 5923 (M&S)
1822 Most of the MM ore was being smelted at AP rather than at Swansea. Metal produced MM/PM/tonnes (1820 to 1830) 406/199-378/233-317/285-323/370-336/339-352/342-388/395-399/336-341/379-385/352-394/337- 5292 inhabitants in Amlwch.
7/1823 New substantial order for copper received from the East India company. 9323 tons of copper ore raised in the next year at the MM alone. Average MM production 1822-26 was 9000 tonnes per year. Two small lighthouse built at the port. 1823 Light coach each day from Freemason’s arm to Liverpool ferry steam ship at Bangor.
21/10/1824 Owen Lewis miner killed at parys mine.
1824 The mineral “Anglesite” (Lead sulphate) first characterized by Beudant.
April 1825 Strike at smelters for improved conditions. Two plates of copper stolen from PM works and sold at Caernarfon. Offers of LLandudno ore refused.
18/8/1825 Colonel Hughes visits the mines welcomed by miners in holiday best (NW gazette)
Nov 1825 Survey and estimate made for railway from port to smelting works by Treweek.
1825 Treweek commission’s son Nicholas to build a ship “Unity” at western dock. First full time custom Officer at Port.
May 1826 William Rees becomes chief smelter at AP with William Morgan working with him. Moved from Penclawdd works. Cost of smelting increased by 25% under Rees.
1826 Treweek becomes Lord Anglesey’s agent at Parys Mine. Takes over from Mr Price. Copper price falls and high stocks at MM. MM produced 758 tonnes in 1826. MM let 105 bargains to 358 men for £3500. PM work for 484 men let for £4735. At Mona Mine 12/- profit for every ton of ore raised.
Sept 1827 Mining accounts at Parys Mine.shows some bargains and profit and some at loss. Also there had been a recent fall which needed to be cleared away. Number of mine tributors where making use of short lengths of unconnected rails. (LLangefni WDAP3)
1827 Thirteen baulks of timber let dowm in groves to improve the defence of the port from Northerly gales.
20/2/1828 Funeral of Cadi Rondol. James Webster manager of Parys Mountain Sulphuric acid works. Manufacture of Blue vitriol, Copperas stopped at Vitriol works but White Vitriol and alum still ongoing.
March 1828 Charles Vignoles a railway engineer arrives to plan railway from MM to the smelting works. Total cost estimate of £6350
Aug1828 Treweek reported that production at MM was poor at <8000 tons of ore. The copper standard price was low. The situation was no better at PM were some bad and dangerous falls of a number of bargains had necessitated the dismissal of of many men. (MMS2425)
1828 Joseph Jones, Colonels Hughe’s agent at Parys mine appointed as superintendent of both smelters due to raising costs. His methods failed and Treweek becomes responsible for smelting operations at Amlwch Smelting Works. Newton Llons & Co take over take over Greenfield Brass works. Francis map shows development of buildings on Eastern side of port.
March 1829 Petition drawn up bearing the names of Amlwch mine agents asking for the banning of imports of copper. 1829 Price and demand for copper dropping employment dropped and precipitation pits closed. Copper ore from Llandudno and Sygun brought to AP for smelting.
30/12/1830 Rock cannon fired as Lord Anglesey departs to become Viceroy of Ireland. (MMS1014) 1830 Treweek ” Sure that Parys mine cannot pay it’s cost”
March 1831 Surplus men from MM set to “cutting a new road for a railway” (Vignoles route from MM to AP) Smelters produced at there highest rates of 450 tons of metal. This helped the smelters but not the miners. Miners allowed to attend doctor of their own choice. The concentration of water in the precipitation pits was also reduced and many men made redundant.
Sept 1831 Oxen Quarry feast for coronation of William IV. 1500 miners in feast on mountain (M&S) 1831 Amlwch population had risen to 6285 with on average 4 persons living in each house. There were 60 pubs which were open until 04:00. (M&S)
Nov1832 North Discovery Lode found at MP. Disputed area between MM & PM. Many letters about the disputed boundary (UCNW 405) Francis map drawn. also reference to another map drawn up in 1776 by John Southern
1833 Treweek becomes responsible for all operations at both the Mona and Parys mines. Appoints son John Henry as mine agent at age 16
11/6/ 1834 2′ 6” gauge railway from port to MM smelter operational
Sept 1835 The resolution of a court case means that Parys Mine gained 2000 Sq yards of land from Mona mine. “Not more than 300 employed at mines”(NWCh1831)
1835 Charles Bunt Dyer visits Amlwch and stays with Treweek. Dyer becomes mine manager.
1846 and moves to Parys Lodge.
1835 Present light house built at Point Lynas.
Feb 1836 Boundary and Marquis Shafts being dug. Also work at Dyffryn Adda taking place.
14/3/1836 Anglsea Mining Company formed to exploit the mineral wealth of Anglesey. James Treweek, Henry Webster, CB Dyer as managers. Not successful and company dissolved 8/9/1841 (Plas coch 3904)
15/8/1836 In his diary A Mine Captain refers to “Fixing air machine at New shaft” A Windmill???
1837 PM spent much money developing new areas but production fell to 250 tons of ore per month.
1838 Following a visit to the smelters at Swansea, Treweek decides to import foreign ores to AP.
1839 New edition of Bingley shows reduction in output from mines. “The mines are but a wreck of what they formally were, the vein of ores being so exhausted, that not more than 300 persons are employed. The receipt scarcely covers the expenses.
1840 Many paupers in Amlwch and typus fever in area.
6/6/1841 Census shows 3373 inhabitants of Amlwch.
26/9/1843 Visit of Lord Dinorben to Parys Mines ( NWCh ) 1843 Hills works established at Llam Carw. Fertilisers from Sulphur. Works continued until 1910. B1026 furnaces were in use emplying 250 men
1844 Parliamentary gazette 1944 iV p403 Reports “Mines are in a great degree abandoned.
1845 Sixteen shafts at MM had been fitted with two horse power whimsy’s.
26/5/1846 North Wales Chronicle reports” Miners turn out for wages on Monday and returned on Wednesday without their demands being met”
July 1846 Steam engine installed at Carreg Y Doll (MM) up until this time water had been raised in kibbles using a “turn tree” (MMS 109)
1846 Dyer becomes PM chief representative in Amlwch and moves to Parys Lodge.
1847 St Eilian Colour works in operation making Venitian red. 1847 John Henry Treweek succeeds his father as Mine manager. New vein of copper found in PM.“Celebrated Mona and Parys Copper mines published by O. Jones. 16 Whimseys at MM and 6 to 8 at PM. MM gives Treweek, Tiddy as pit work and Engineering, JH Treweek surface and underground operations., Ore dressing Captain Job. Assay chemist.P. Webster. accountant Evan,Evans. PM CB Dyer, general control CE Dyer surface and underground. Assay H.Roberts, John Dyer.
1848 “Amlwch and the celebrated Mona and Parys copper mines” by Owen Jones 1850 Painting of GOC by Warrington Smythe shows steam engine close to marquis shaft.
30/3/1851 Census shows 193 miners, 12 carters, 28 copper ladies. 61 in smelting works.
6/12/1851 James Treweek death. Sons John Henry becomes Mine Agent and William George assayer. Only 90 men employed at MM. Owen Griffiths born 1852 Steam winding engine in operation at Hillside opencast inclined plain. (MMS 3358) 1853 William George Treweek relieved of duties as assayer at MM due to Drunkenness. New 24” steam engine costing £ 632 from Perran foundry installed in pearl engine house. (MMS 2786) Required new spring beams in 1857 (MMS 2787) and was still working in 1880. Rhianfa copper works opened in Bull bay.
1855 Nicholas Treweek established a new yard and dry dock on the eastern side of AP. Old yard sold to Cox Paynter. The passing of the Limited Liability Act meant that for the first time individuals could invest in a registered company without taking on the liabilities if that company were to fall into debt. 31/1/1857 Rock cannon fired to celebrate Sarah Jane roose coming of age. (NWCh)
14/4/1858 East Parys mining company registered (John Taylors) .
1858 Mr Hill fertilizer works also providing employment and adding to success of farmers around (NWCh1858)
1858 Captain Dyer becomes mine manager. Mines reported to be working well with good wages to be had. Mona Smelting company importing copper ore from Cwm Dyli & LLandudno.
1859 Treweek builds Mary Catherine the first iron ship in North Wales Plan of Parys mine drawn by Henry Dennis of Rhiwabon (MMS31584)
17/1/1860 Hugh Roberts the assayer at PM with 45 years’ service sacked as the mine had adopted a new system of working which made it possible to dispense with his job. No other suitable job could be found.
6/7/1860 Thomas Tiddy MM manager tries to force miners to repay loans by deduction from wages. Strike Tiddy hid in Carreg Y doll engine at MM which broke while he was hiding. This eventually lead to Tiddy resignation and family leaving Amlwch area. George Trewen appointed MM manager. Smelters also on strike for higher wages. (MMS 3618)
1860 Hills agreed to calcine all of Mona mines ores in return for the sulphur. Hills said to have 3 vitriol chambers at the mine and one at the coast each producing 15,00 lbs of 15.5 % sulphuric acid per week. New smelters and acid works built at Craig y don. Direct pyretic process. Parys Mine Company Ltd. formed. John Taylor and Sons as major shareholder. The East Mona company formed to work at tyddyn mawr NE of Amlwch. Managed by Tiddy. John Henry Treweek dismissed from MM due “discovered disposing of ochre and receiving payment without accounting for it” Some of Amlwch corn wind mills fitted with steam engines to keep production going on still days.
8/7/1861 Roger Pritchard dies following injuries received in accident at ” New workings” Parys mine.
9/4/1863 Trewren shows favour to two men called Buzzas during the settlement of a bargain. This lead to a strike and Trewren sacked the miners lead called Owen Roberts. However, peace was only restored when Roberts was re-instated. Trewren remained at the mines until at least 1867.
1863 Royal Commission on Mines Dr Richard Lewis Parry of the Mona mine and Dr Thomas Hughes of the Parys mine describe the respiratory problems caused by the sulphur and vitriol works. The miners had to wait for up to 2 hours after a blast for the cordite fumes to clear. Tuberculosis and silicosis from the quartz veins were common.Miners wages around 14/- / week . The South Parys Copper Mining company formed.
Oct 1864 New railway operational to Llangefni.
1864 The North Parys Copper Mining company formed.
May 1865 Plas Newydd papers report “Steam engine at Carreg Y doll patched up and supplied with a new boiler, but a larger modern unit required.
May 1865 Thomas fanning Evans wrote ” The Birmingham and London rates now make the land route even cheaper than our present mode of sending via Liverpool The freight cost of ore from Llangefni to London 27/6 per ton to Birmingham 22/6 and to Liverpool 16/8. (MMS 1996) Even when the cartage to Llangefni at 10/- per ton was taken into account the total price to London was £1/17/- per ton compared to £2/1/6 via ships. The Mona Mine manuscripts (MMS 3749) records that for the 2 week period ending on 9 June 1865, 21 tons of ore was sent on the sea and 16 tons on the railway. The following two week periods show 27 and 32 tons of ore being transported on the railway and none by sea. 20/4/1866 Mona mine leased to Thomas Fanning Evans and John Wynne Paynter for 31 years. 1866 Mona Lodge T.F.Evans , Bryn Tirion H.Hills, Maes y llwyn J.W.Paynter, Fron deg B Roose. Hills works sending thousands of tons of fertilizer to all parts of the UK each year. Mr Heth Jones has an iron foundry and there is also a water wheel driven woollen factory. There were 518 ships into the harbour in the previous year with 29,577 tons of cargo. 210 ships and 9728 tons out. Melin Borth owned by JW Paynter. Also a windmill turned the wheels of the paint mill owned by John Parry. Three steam engines in Mona mine lifting water and stones from a total of 17 shafts.. 4 steam pumping engines in Parys Mine. One at parys farm pumping fresh water to the engines on the mountain.15 shafts at PM. Taylor and Co running PM. Chief agent Capt. Mitchel CB dyer starting to dig “south paris” and a new steam engine has been installed to lift stones. There were also said to be twenty steam engines of some sort in Amlwch. (Hugh Hughes) 1866 Lifeboat “Eleanor” at Bull Bay. The station close in 1926 having saved 63 lives and 7 vessels.
17/10/1867 Lightening strike on Mona mill killing Williams Jones the miller’s son.
1867 Railway arrives at Amlwch.
1869 David Jones prints 21-page prospectus for North Anglesey Slate and slab company at Balog quarry Llanelian. New export harbour called Port Dinorben to be built. Production stopped 1876.
1870 Leases from Parys Mine Company Ltd. Ltd transferred to Parys Mines Reconstruction Ltd name later changed to Parys Mountain Mines.Ltd.
(2/8/1870) This company raised 8470 tonnes of ore , 634 tons of brimstone and 225 tons of blue stone between 1870 and 1874. T Fanning Evans took a lease on the Mona mines from the LLys Dulas estate A boiler exploded in the ore crushing plant killing 7 men. See :-Deaths and injuries Captains Trevethick and James Williams leave to go to Canada. Amlwch piant works operational from 1870 to 1872. It was reopened again at the end of the century but soon closed for ever because of a strike. 1870 The building of Dinorben Cottage hospital started. Closed by 1893
24/7/1871 Mining journal has reference to the Mona Mines and Smelting Co as a private company. It’s correspondent states ” it would not be an unwise economy as well as a philanthropic gesture, if the company were to provide for the showy and picturesque looking girls who work the jiggers a light zinc or galvanised iron roof over their head. (Mining Journal 24/7/1871 p552)
1871 John Taylor and sons suspend operations at Parys due to two years’ poor results at 136-150 fathom levels which had been worked from 1860 to 1869 as Parys Mines Company. During the period 2717 tons of copper from ore and 326 tons of copper from precipitate were recovered. Still using wooded pumps. Mine allowed to flood to 90 fathom level. Profit from 1858 to 1870 was £400,000 Mona mine underground work still continued until 1883. Local paper reports the mines as having been abandoned other than by precipitation. William Thomas becomes manager of Iard newydd. 1872 Captain William Thomas buys Treweek’s Yard Newydd. Edmund Spargo working Rhosymanach and Carmel mines. A steam powered “crusher” in use at Parys mine A buddle also built to separate ore from waste.( MJ 17/2/1872 p142) Mines inspector’s reports gives:- Mona Mine Manager Williams Hughes, Pant y gasseg James Williams, Parys Mine PS (sic) Thomas Michael, Parys East ( united) Thomas Michael. (UCNW 407)
1872 Grand concert held of British School. Nicholas Treweek of Plas pen y bonc (Bryn Arfor) loaned piano.
24/1/1873 30 tons of scrap iron from Liverpool brought in for Mona mine by the railway.
Feb 1873 TF Evans from MM signed an agreement with a London Business man to take scrap iron from London by rail to Amlwch for use in precipitation ponds. At the same time he was using Ships from the harbour to take Ore to Newcastle and to bring in scrap iron from Dunlin.
26/11/1873 Hugh Jones, Miner at Mona Mines killed “Falling down a working place underground” See :-Deaths and injuries 1874 Only 5664 tons of ore and 3090 tons of “Ochres and Umbers” produced in a year and only 400 workers (NWCH1874) Parys Mountain Mines.Ltd. start to explore at Morfa du. Shaft sunk to 36 fathoms and ore of 10% copper found.
Feb 1877 Substantial damage to ships in Amlwch port due to a NE storm.
1878 Quote from The Sandycroft Foundry to add an air compressor to “the back of one of our engines” This was possibly a winch engine for the Parys footway which has also underground evidence of compressed air pipes. Windmill built at PM with connection flat roads to assist Cairns shaft engine house.
24/3/1879 Parys Copper Corporation Ltd formed to acquire Parys Mountain Mines Ltd. Run by Captain Thomas Mitchel. Tried to dig deeper in PM opencast and also in 90 fathom level of the Carreg y Doll lode. Also working the Ochre pits. 1879 Charles Dyer died. PM company had made £400,000 profit since 1857 under his leadership.
10/7/1880 Mona Mines Ltd formed. Fanning Evans and John Paynter and Robert Oldrey major share owners. Underground operations to the South and east and Lemin Shaft commenced. New engine purchased. Smelting operations ongoing at AP. 1880 Absalom Francis a mining engineer prepared a report on Mona Mine. He recorded that in an area “300 fathoms to the east of the present workings shafts and workings dating from the 17th century, though reworked 40 years ago , are still to be seen. Further to the east again, and reaching almost to the road there where traces of ancient mining” He also notes a 16′ winding engine which draws from three shafts by mines of a winding engine (Black rock,Tiddy,Job and calciner.’ (Mining Journal 1880 p 134)
8/12/1880 New engine steamed at Cairns shaft. It had taken 17 horses to drag the boiler to the top of the hill. (MJ 11/12/1880 p1418)
4/4/1881 National census shows 111 Miners,7 engine drivers, 9 carters 1 copper lady and 16 in the smelters.
1881 Captain Thomas Mitchell and the Parys Copper Corporation take over the Parys mine. Mona Smelting company last furnace closed down. “Chemicus” J.C.Roose wrote ” Amlwch Bull bay and neighbourhood.
1883 Mona mine closed due to shortage of money. The Bluestone being mined required 50% picking and was hard to process. Copper price £180/te in 1805 to £48/te in 1885.
1885 Parys & Morfa du mines merge to form Mona and Parys United Mines Ltd. TF Evans gains control of both mines on a 21-year lease. The lease was eventually extended to 1928. Mona mine allowed to flood to 20 fathom level
1887 Hills importing sulphur from Spain. Suggesting mining activity had reduced.
24/3/1879 Parys Copper Corporation Ltd take over the assets of Parys Mountain Mines company Ltd. Main activity confined to ochre pits. Some attempts to mine deeper pits in bottom of great opencast in the Carreg y Doll Lode 90 fathom level.
Nov 1889 Railway supplies journals lists Mof A as Owner of MM and TF Evans of Mona Lodge and Lady Neave of Dulus as owners of PM and MD mines. The mixed ore bluestone is largely exported to Belgium for treatment. Copper water is pumped up by 4 steam engines and a 5 bladed windmill for the precipitation process. Wooden pipes still being used. Grades of ochre and purple slime being made.
March 1890 Prince Ja Ja a 50 tonnes steel ship launched at iard newydd
1892 Fanning Evans had 31 miners underground and 126 on the surface with 34 employed in the ochre pits. Copper precipitate made 265 Tones worth £3090,Ochre 2150 tons £4870, Stone470 @ £850. (Yr clorianydd 1893) Plan of opencast and underground workings (MSS 31590)
Aug 1893 Evan Evans (Mona Lodge) produced report on sanitation in Amlwch. Either buckets or local streams used for sanitation. Water from open wells. The report lead to the creation of the parish council in 1895 charged with cleaning up the town.
1893 Hills now smelting ores as well as calcining. 265 tons (£3090) of copper produced by TFE via precipitation process.2150 tons of Ochre and Umber (£2150) and 470 te of carreg copr (£850). A total of 31 miners and 126 in the paint pools. An enormous fire swept through the works in May 1893 when a furnace of hot copper cracked and flowed onto coals. 50 roof trussess destroyed.
1895 Owen Griffiths states that as many as eighty women might work together, housed in a long wooden shed.
1897 Smelting stopped at Hills just chemicals.
1889 New steam engine noted at top of Hillside opencast incline plain. (UWB fs31590)
1899/1900 Mona and Parys Mines Ltd formed. Furnace ordered from America but unable to melt hard rock of mountain and pipes tuned to stone in a fortnight.
1901 National census shows 141 working at mine in ochre and precipitation pits only. Gawith Hills had 15 men working.
1904 Intermediate level in MM and Shaft Fawr in PM built. Last great underground works.
1907 Hills Guano works installed a steam crane at Amlwch port.
1908 Eilian last ship launched from Williams Thomas yard.
1910 Dr E. Greenly geological study of Parys mountain.
1911 Mona Mill stoped grinding corn.
1912 Report on Mona and Parys mines by T W Jenkins. Suggests that mine should not be reopened. MM CYD, Charlotte, clay and blackrock are main lodes. Only 200 tes of copper from precipitation pits @ £36/te had been raised since 1907.
12/08/1913 Trustees of the harbour transfer responsibility to the Town council.
1921 A receiver for the Mona and Parys Mines Ltd had been called in. Report for prospective buyers says that 8 shafts are still in good condition. the CYD lode was yielding 2 1/4 % Copper. the lode is stated to be 100 ft. A lode 20 to 30 ft wide in entirely new ground between MM and PM was discovered about 3 years ago with average 3.3% copper. (Henry James)
1925 Rhosmynach copper mine closed. In 1827-1832 144 tes of ore had been produced.
1928 Report to Companies house that the mine were now a private concern carried on by T.F.Evans (II)
1937 Excavation of ancient dump near windmill by O.Davies. A total of 24 hammers stones, charcoal and other artefacts found.
1955 New exploration for copper began at PM by Anglesey Mining Exploration Ltd. Detailed geological survey carried out in Mona and Morfa Ddu mines for bluestone. Precipitation from Dyffryn Adda continuing. 150-200 gals/min70ppm copper 55ppm (80%) recovered giving 30 tons per annum of precipitate. Valves fitted to dam in Dyffyn adda to control water level in mine. Manning estimated it would take 50 days at 600gal/min to pump down to 90 fathom level. (195,000 M3)
1961 Anglesey Copper Mines (UK) Ltd carry out further geological mapping and surface boreholes drilled.
1966 Canadian Gas and Oil drill an number of bore holes. No promising reserves found.
16/09/1971 Mineral lease for 5 km2 granted to Parys Mountain Mines Ltd for 99 years. Further bore holes by Intermine Ltd /Noranda Ltd.
1973 Cominco Ltd start exploration in traditional Bluestone area then turned Northwards and found zinc.
1978 Recognition of a polymetalic high grade ore at the Engine zone at the western edge of the mountain by Cominco.Ltd.
1984 Anglesey Mining Co Ltd (AMC) established to develop polymetalic ore.
01/05/1986 AMC obtain planning consent to mine for Zinc , copper and lead sulphide.
01/05/1988 Anglesey Mining PLC floated on stock exchange. 11/10/1988 Start of “Morris” shaft by AMC. Ltd.
1988 Early Mines Research Group relocate O.Davies trenches and find charcoal which date stone hammers to 2000-1500 BC.
01/09/1990 Morris shaft down 300 meters and a 280-meter level driven NW towards the ore reserves.
01/02/1991 Planning application by AMC to extend the tailings disposal area to the south of the mountain in the area now occupied by the Dyffryn coch precipitation pits.
1998 Establishment of Amlwch Industrial Heritage Trust (AIHT)to preserve and promote the mining and shipping heritage of the area. 1999 Sign posted heritage trail established around the mountain.
1999 Parys mountain underground group formed to explore, document and preserve the underground areas of the mine.