Water removal from the mine
For many years the depth to which mines could be dug depended to a great extent on the amount of water flooding into the mines. During the early part of the 18th century the mine depths were limited to those which were accessible to removal of water by buckets and windlass.
In some areas horizontal tunnels called adits where dug to assist in the removal of water. In other mining districts it was possible to use local streams to power water wheels or windmills which assisted in water removal.
However it was not until the invention and development of the steam engine that efficient pumps became available to deal with the water ingress to deep mines.
The pumping of water from all copper mines presented its own particular problem. Iron pipes could not be used as the acid nature of the copper water attacked them.
Bingley and Faraday both talk about the underground water pumping system being made of wooden pipes.
It is known that both horse driven whimsy’s and a simple wind mill was used to dewater the mines on Parys mountain when the Reverand Bingley visited in 1798. However, there is also evidence that in 1782 and 1783 Thomas Williams was petitioning parliament to obtain a reduction in duties on coal transported by sea to enable him to reduce the cost of his steam engines at Mynydd Parys.